Male victims of domestic violence in south africa
South Africa has a significant violence problem. The exposure of girls and women to interpersonal violence is widespread, and the victimization of men, especially to severe and homicidal forms of aggression, is of considerable concern, with male homicide eight times the global rate. In the last two decades, there have been a plethora of South African policies to promote safety. However, indications suggest that the policy response to violence is not coherently formulated, comprehensive, or evenly implemented.
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Male Domestic Violence In South Africa And Nigeria
Family law. Forfeiture of Assets in a Divorce. UK Divorce Laws. Marriage and Relationship Therapists. Conflict and dispute-resolution mechanisms. Maintenance and Cohabitation Sample Cohabitation Agreement Engagement and the law Formalities for marriage in south africa. Domestic Violence and Abuse. South Africa has one of the highest incidences of domestic violence in the world.
And, sadly, domestic violence is the most common and widespread human rights abuse in South Africa. Every day, women are murdered, physically and sexually assaulted, threatened and humiliated by their partners, within their own homes.
Organisations estimate that one out of every six woman in South Africa is regularly assaulted by her partner. In at least 46 per cent of cases, the men involved also abuse the children living with the woman. Although the exact percentages are disputed, there is a large body of cross-cultural evidence that women are subjected to domestic violence significantly more than men.
In addition, there is broad consensus that women are more often subjected to severe forms of abuse and are more likely to be injured by an abusive partner.
Determining how many instances of domestic violence actually involve male victims is difficult. Some studies have shown that women who assault their male partners are more likely to avoid arrest even when the male victim contacts the police. Another study concluded that female perpetrators are viewed by law enforcement as the victims rather than the actual offenders of violence against men. Other studies have also demonstrated a high degree of community acceptance of aggression against men by women.
Domestic violence also occurs in same-sex relationships. Gay and lesbian relationships have been identified as risk factors for abuse in certain populations. Historically, domestic violence has been seen as a family issue and little interest has been directed at violence in same-sex relationships.
Domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behaviour that transgresses the right of citizens to be free from violence. When one partner in a relationship harms the other to obtain or maintain power and control over them, regardless of whether they are married or unmarried, living together or apart, that is domestic violence. The Act was introduced in with the purpose of affording women protection from domestic violence by creating obligations on law enforcement bodies, such as the South African Police Service SAPS , to protect victims as far as possible.
The Act attempts to provide victims of domestic violence with an accessible legal instrument with which to prevent further abuses taking place within their domestic relationships.
The Act recognises that domestic violence is a serious crime against our society, and extends the definition of domestic violence to include not only married women and their children, but also unmarried women who are involved in relationships or living with their partners, people in same-sex relationships, mothers and their sons, and other people who share a living space.
Types of domestic violence Domestic violence can take a variety of forms and generally includes the following acts: Physical abuse Any act or threat of physical violence intended to cause physical pain, injury, suffering or bodily harm.
Physical abuse can include hitting, slapping, punching, choking, pushing and any other type of contact that results in physical injury to the victim. It can also include inflicting physical injury onto other targets, such as children or pets, in order to cause psychological harm to the victim. Sexual abuse Any conduct that abuses, humiliates, degrades or otherwise violates the sexual integrity of the victim.
Sexual abuse is any situation in which force or threat is used to obtain participation in unwanted sexual activity. Coercing a person to engage in sexual activity against their will, even if that person is a spouse or intimate partner with whom consensual sex has occurred previously, is an act of aggression and violence.
As such, it is a form of partner rape, and amounts to domestic violence and sexual abuse. Other acts that fall under emotional abuse include controlling what the victim can and cannot do, withholding information from the victim, deliberately doing something to make the victim feel diminished or embarrassed, isolating the victim from friends and family, implicitly blackmailing the victim by harming others when the victim expresses independence or happiness, and denying the victim access to money or other basic resources and necessities.
Emotional abuse includes conflicting actions or statements that are designed to confuse and create insecurity in the victim. These behaviours lead victims to question themselves, causing them to believe that they are making up the abuse or that the abuse is their fault.
Emotional abuse also includes forceful efforts to isolate the victim, to keep them from contacting friends or family. This is intended to eliminate those who might try to help the victim leave the relationship and to create a lack of resources for the victim to rely on if they were to leave. Women and men undergoing emotional abuse often suffer from depression, which puts them at increased risk for suicide,eating disorders, and drug and alcohol abuse.
In this way, the perpetrator can prevent the victim from obtaining education, finding employment, maintaining or advancing a career and acquiring assets. Intimidation Uttering or conveying a threat, or causing a victim to receive a threat, which induces fear.
The abuser may use a variety of intimidation tactics designed to scare the victim into submission. Stalking There is no real legal definition of stalking. Neither is there any specific legislation to address this behaviour. The term is used to define a particular kind of harassment. Generally, it refers to a long-term pattern of persistent and repetitive contact with, or attempts to contact, a particular victim. The stalker may use websites to post offensive material, create fake profiles or even make a dedicated website about the victim.
Damage to property Wilful damaging or destruction of property belonging to the victim or in which the victim has a vested interest. Any other controlling or abusive behaviour Any conduct that harms, or may cause imminent harm to, the safety, health or well being of the victim. The protection order A protection order, also called a restraining order or domestic violence interdict, is a court order that tells an abuser to stop the abuse and sets certain conditions preventing the abuser from harassing or abusing the victim again.
It may also help ensure that the abuser continues to pay rent or a bond or interim maintenance. The protection order may also prevent the abuser from getting help from any other person to commit abusive acts. POWA also accompanies women to court and assists them in filling out documents.
Steps to obtain a protection order: Apply for a protection order at a Magistrates Court nearest to where you live and work, at any time, during and outside court hours as well as on public holidays or weekends. The application must be made by way of an affidavit which states the: facts on which the application is based nature of the order name of the police station where the complainant is likely to report any breach of the protection order.
On receipt of the form, the clerk will send your application to the magistrate who will then set a date for you to return to court, so that your application can be considered. The magistrate will also prepare a notice to inform the abuser about the protection order and when he or she should come to court. After the court appearance, the magistrate may grant the protection order. Legal Notices. Are you in an Abusive relationship?
Gender-based violence in South Africa
Gender-based violence knows no borders, but in South Africa, femicide -- the killing of women — seems to have touched every woman of every walk of life, and from every social sphere. Delphine, a South African survivor of domestic abuse who asked that her last name remain anonymous, is one of the lucky ones -- she is still alive. She told ABC News of the abuse she endured at the hands of her ex-boyfriend and the father of her children.
Civil society organisations across the country formed the National Strategic Plan on Gender-Based Violence campaign, demanding a fully-costed, evidence-based, multi-sectoral, inclusive and comprehensive NSP to end GBV. Gender-based violence GBV is a profound and widespread problem in South Africa, impacting on almost every aspect of life. GBV which disproportionately affects women and girls is systemic, and deeply entrenched in institutions, cultures and traditions in South Africa. GBV occurs as a result of normative role expectations and unequal power relationships between genders in a society.
Domestic violence in South Africa
Gender-based violence GBV has been pervasive across the course of human history. While GBV has always been characterised by female victimhood and male perpetration, it is worth noting that this definition makes no explicit reference to the gender of either the victim or the perpetrator. The possibility, then, of male victimhood, is important to consider. This is not to deny that most of the energy and resources should focus on women and girls as victims and indeed on marginalised victims such as trans people, gay men and lesbian women, and people who are gender variant. But in shining a light on mostly heterosexual men as victims, we open the door to helping such men, and we introduce necessary complexity and nuance in a field which may have closed the door on male victimhood. McMahon , for example, points out that there is no international legal instrument specifically prohibiting sexual violence against men, which she believes reinforces the prevailing notion that only women and girls are victims of GBV. One answer to this question relates to toxic constructions of masculinity.
Violence Against Women (VAW) Hotlines
Domestic violence in South Africa has been viewed as a private matter until the last few decades. In the financial year, just over one-third of the crimes against women that had been reported were prosecuted in court. Legislation has been passed to help improve the quality of life for those being abused and to prevent further abuse. Although the movement against domestic violence is a relatively new movement, it has been making great strides in the country since the s. Physical abuse ; sexual abuse ; emotional, verbal and psychological abuse; economic abuse ; intimidation ; harassment ; stalking ; damage to property; entry into the complainant's residence without consent, where the parties do not share the same residence; or any other controlling or abusive behaviour towards a complainant, where such conduct harms, or may cause imminent harm to, the safety, health or wellbeing of the complainant.
Domestic Violence and Abuse
How communities are addressing violence against women in South Africa